1. Installing PHPUnit
PHPUnit latest requires PHP 7.1; using the latest version of PHP is highly recommended.
PHP Archive (PHAR)
The easiest way to obtain PHPUnit is to download a PHP Archive (PHAR) that has all required (as well as some optional) dependencies of PHPUnit bundled in a single file.
The phar extension is required for using PHP Archives (PHAR).
If the Suhosin extension is
enabled, you need to allow execution of PHARs in your
suhosin.executor.include.whitelist = phar
The PHPUnit PHAR can be used immediately after download:
$ wget https://phar.phpunit.de/phpunit-|version|.phar $ php phpunit-|version|.phar --version PHPUnit x.y.z by Sebastian Bergmann and contributors.
It is a common practice to make the PHAR executable:
$ wget https://phar.phpunit.de/phpunit-|version|.phar $ chmod +x phpunit-|version|.phar $ ./phpunit-|version|.phar --version PHPUnit x.y.z by Sebastian Bergmann and contributors.
Verifying PHPUnit PHAR Releases
All official releases of code distributed by the PHPUnit Project are signed by the release manager for the release. PGP signatures and SHA256 hashes are available for verification on phar.phpunit.de.
The following example details how release verification works. We start
phpunit.phar as well as its
detached PGP signature
$ wget https://phar.phpunit.de/phpunit-|version|.phar $ wget https://phar.phpunit.de/phpunit-|version|.phar.asc
We want to verify PHPUnit’s PHP Archive (
against its detached signature (
$ gpg phpunit-|version|.phar.asc gpg: Signature made Sat 19 Jul 2014 01:28:02 PM CEST using RSA key ID 6372C20A gpg: Can't check signature: public key not found
We don’t have the release manager’s public key (
in our local system. In order to proceed with the verification we need
to retrieve the release manager’s public key from a key server. One such
pgp.uni-mainz.de. The public key servers
are linked together, so you should be able to connect to any key server.
$ gpg --keyserver pgp.uni-mainz.de --recv-keys 0x4AA394086372C20A gpg: requesting key 6372C20A from hkp server pgp.uni-mainz.de gpg: key 6372C20A: public key "Sebastian Bergmann <email@example.com>" imported gpg: Total number processed: 1 gpg: imported: 1 (RSA: 1)
Now we have received a public key for an entity known as “Sebastian Bergmann <firstname.lastname@example.org>”. However, we have no way of verifying this key was created by the person known as Sebastian Bergmann. But, let’s try to verify the release signature again.
$ gpg phpunit-|version|.phar.asc gpg: Signature made Sat 19 Jul 2014 01:28:02 PM CEST using RSA key ID 6372C20A gpg: Good signature from "Sebastian Bergmann <email@example.com>" gpg: aka "Sebastian Bergmann <firstname.lastname@example.org>" gpg: aka "Sebastian Bergmann <email@example.com>" gpg: aka "Sebastian Bergmann <firstname.lastname@example.org>" gpg: aka "Sebastian Bergmann <email@example.com>" gpg: aka "[jpeg image of size 40635]" gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature! gpg: There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner. Primary key fingerprint: D840 6D0D 8294 7747 2937 7831 4AA3 9408 6372 C20A
At this point, the signature is good, but we don’t trust this key. A
good signature means that the file has not been tampered. However, due
to the nature of public key cryptography, you need to additionally
verify that key
6372C20A was created by the real
Any attacker can create a public key and upload it to the public key servers. They can then create a malicious release signed by this fake key. Then, if you tried to verify the signature of this corrupt release, it would succeed because the key was not the “real” key. Therefore, you need to validate the authenticity of this key. Validating the authenticity of a public key, however, is outside the scope of this documentation.
Manually verifying the authenticity and integrity of a PHPUnit PHAR using GPG is tedious. This is why PHIVE, the PHAR Installation and Verification Environment, was created. You can learn about PHIVE on its website
Simply add a (development-time) dependency on
phpunit/phpunit to your project’s
composer.json file if you use Composer to manage the
dependencies of your project:
composer require --dev phpunit/phpunit ^|version|
Please note that it is not recommended to install PHPUnit globally, as
/usr/local/bin/phpunit, for instance.
Instead, PHPUnit should be managed as a project-local dependency.
Either put the PHAR of the specific PHPUnit version you need in your project’s
tools directory (which should be managed by PHIVE) or depend on the specific PHPUnit version
you need in your project’s
composer.json if you use Composer.