11. Extending PHPUnit

PHPUnit can be extended in various ways to make the writing of tests easier and customize the feedback you get from running tests. Here are common starting points to extend PHPUnit.

Subclass PHPUnit\Framework\TestCase

Write custom assertions and utility methods in an abstract subclass of PHPUnit\Framework\TestCase and derive your test case classes from that class. This is one of the easiest ways to extend PHPUnit.

Write custom assertions

When writing custom assertions it is the best practice to follow how PHPUnit’s own assertions are implemented. As you can see in Example 11.1, the assertTrue() method is just a wrapper around the isTrue() and assertThat() methods: isTrue() creates a matcher object that is passed on to assertThat() for evaluation.

Example 11.1 The assertTrue() and isTrue() methods of the PHPUnit\Framework\Assert class
<?php
namespace PHPUnit\Framework;

use PHPUnit\Framework\TestCase;

abstract class Assert
{
    // ...

    /**
     * Asserts that a condition is true.
     *
     * @param  boolean $condition
     * @param  string  $message
     * @throws PHPUnit\Framework\AssertionFailedError
     */
    public static function assertTrue($condition, $message = '')
    {
        self::assertThat($condition, self::isTrue(), $message);
    }

    // ...

    /**
     * Returns a PHPUnit\Framework\Constraint\IsTrue matcher object.
     *
     * @return PHPUnit\Framework\Constraint\IsTrue
     * @since  Method available since Release 3.3.0
     */
    public static function isTrue()
    {
        return new PHPUnit\Framework\Constraint\IsTrue;
    }

    // ...
}?>

Example 11.2 shows how PHPUnit\Framework\Constraint\IsTrue extends the abstract base class for matcher objects (or constraints), PHPUnit\Framework\Constraint.

Example 11.2 The PHPUnit\FrameworkConstraint\IsTrue class
<?php
namespace PHPUnit\Framework\Constraint;

use PHPUnit\Framework\Constraint;

class IsTrue extends Constraint
{
    /**
     * Evaluates the constraint for parameter $other. Returns true if the
     * constraint is met, false otherwise.
     *
     * @param mixed $other Value or object to evaluate.
     * @return bool
     */
    public function matches($other)
    {
        return $other === true;
    }

    /**
     * Returns a string representation of the constraint.
     *
     * @return string
     */
    public function toString()
    {
        return 'is true';
    }
}?>

The effort of implementing the assertTrue() and isTrue() methods as well as the PHPUnit\Framework\Constraint\IsTrue class yields the benefit that assertThat() automatically takes care of evaluating the assertion and bookkeeping tasks such as counting it for statistics. Furthermore, the isTrue() method can be used as a matcher when configuring mock objects.

Implement PHPUnit\Framework\TestListener

Example 11.3 shows a simple implementation of the PHPUnit\Framework\TestListener interface.

Example 11.3 A simple test listener
<?php
use PHPUnit\Framework\TestCase;
use PHPUnit\Framework\TestListener;

class SimpleTestListener implements TestListener
{
    public function addError(PHPUnit\Framework\Test $test, \Throwable $e, float $time): void
    {
        printf("Error while running test '%s'.\n", $test->getName());
    }

    public function addWarning(PHPUnit\Framework\Test $test, PHPUnit\Framework\Warning $e, float $time): void
    {
        printf("Warning while running test '%s'.\n", $test->getName());
    }

    public function addFailure(PHPUnit\Framework\Test $test, PHPUnit\Framework\AssertionFailedError $e, float $time): void
    {
        printf("Test '%s' failed.\n", $test->getName());
    }

    public function addIncompleteTest(PHPUnit\Framework\Test $test, \Throwable $e, float $time): void
    {
        printf("Test '%s' is incomplete.\n", $test->getName());
    }

    public function addRiskyTest(PHPUnit\Framework\Test $test, \Throwable $e, float $time): void
    {
        printf("Test '%s' is deemed risky.\n", $test->getName());
    }

    public function addSkippedTest(PHPUnit\Framework\Test $test, \Throwable $e, float $time): void
    {
        printf("Test '%s' has been skipped.\n", $test->getName());
    }

    public function startTest(PHPUnit\Framework\Test $test): void
    {
        printf("Test '%s' started.\n", $test->getName());
    }

    public function endTest(PHPUnit\Framework\Test $test, float $time): void
    {
        printf("Test '%s' ended.\n", $test->getName());
    }

    public function startTestSuite(PHPUnit\Framework\TestSuite $suite): void
    {
        printf("TestSuite '%s' started.\n", $suite->getName());
    }

    public function endTestSuite(PHPUnit\Framework\TestSuite $suite): void
    {
        printf("TestSuite '%s' ended.\n", $suite->getName());
    }
}
?>

Example 11.4 shows how to use the PHPUnit\Framework\TestListenerDefaultImplementation trait, which lets you specify only the interface methods that are interesting for your use case, while providing empty implementations for all the others.

Example 11.4 Using test listener default implementation trait
<?php
use PHPUnit\Framework\TestListener;
use PHPUnit\Framework\TestListenerDefaultImplementation;

class ShortTestListener implements TestListener
{
    use TestListenerDefaultImplementation;

    public function endTest(PHPUnit\Framework\Test $test, float $time): void
    {
        printf("Test '%s' ended.\n", $test->getName());
    }
}
?>

In Test Listeners you can see how to configure PHPUnit to attach your test listener to the test execution.